What are the common physiological factors in the elderly?
Decreased cardiac and respiratory function
If adult response is the norm, pediatric patients must be observed for what response?
Several components make up an individual. Any need or activity related to genetics, physiology, or anatomy is termed a __ need?
Any need or activity related to the identification and understanding of oneself is termed a __ need?
Any need or activity related to one’s identification or interaction with another individual or group is termed a __ need?
Any need or activity related to the identification and understanding of one’s place in an organized universe (expressions may involve theology, philisophy, mythology, and intuition) is termed a __ need?
what is the term given to a genetic malformation known commonly as a cleft lip?
An example of a non malignant neoplasm is?
according to the text, which two broad factors apply to a patient’s reaction to health, illness, and hospitilization?
adaptation and stress
Roy states that health involves becoming an integrated and __ person?
A non-specific response of the body to demand is known as?
when an injury or illness takes place, certain stressors affect the patient physically and mentally. An adolescent patient is very conscious about their?
body and privacy
When an illness takes place, certain stressors affect the patient physically and mentally. Adult patients are worried about?
A consequence of hypertension from PMMA use is what?
air into the femoral venous vessels
Approximately what percentage of direct patient care personnel are sensitive to latex?
To keep the amount of airborne contamination in the OR room to a minimum, the CDC recommends how many air exchanges per hour?
The are that contains a sink, has a steam sterilizer, and acts as a workroom for an OR or a group of adjacent ORs is known as?
What machine found in the decontamination room uses cavitation?
What is the main reason tile floor in the OR are undesirable?
grout harbors bacteria and is difficult to clean
Injury due to improper positioning can result in ALL member being sued for?
Accountability is defined as
the obligation to disclose details for evaluation….to be held responsible for
Negligence is a breach of duty and is defined as?
an omission or commission of an act that a reasonable and prudent person would NOT do under the same circumstance
Whose responsibility is it to identify the surgical patient?
transport personel, pre-op holding nurse, circulator, anesthesiologist, surgeon, ALL MEMBER OF SURGICAL TEAM
Who is responsible for checking diagnostic tests such as X-rays and CT scans to confirm the proper area or side before an incision is made?
Surgeon and Surgical assistant
When taking hot surgical instruments from a steam autoclave, the surgical technologist is responsible for cooling instruments with ?
cool sterile water
What must be done to electrical devices in the OR to prevent the risk of burns to the patient?
grounded and tested frequently
What should take place immediately after the patient is moved from the stretcher to the OR table?
safety strap should be applied
Loss or mishandling of a specimen could be considered negligence and could result in?
preventing a diagnosis, and require another surgical procedure
The only method used to ensure the sterility of an item is?
Whose responsibility is it to remove a patients personal items in the OR
__ is truly the best medicine when taking care of the surgical patient?
__ is the term that refers to permission being given for an action?
A properly written, informed consent should contain the __?
patients legal name, surgeons name, procedure performed, risks of anesthesia, patients legal signature, signature of witnesses, date and time of signatures
Informed consent may be given under specific circumstances, by any of the following EXCEPT?
a competent adult
Implied consent may apply when?
conditions found during surgery
In the health care field, the term __ is used broadly to refer to the placing of information into a patients medical record?
The medical record of a surgical patient will typically include all of the following EXCEPT?
family members names
What is used to report an unusual event that has occurred and may have legal ramifications for the staff or the patient?
Ethics is an attempt to define right and wrong based upon?
The Patients Bill of Rights establishes the patient as ?
a consumer of goods
Knowledge and skills required for the profession to provide effective and reliable services is called?
scope of practice
To a very large extent, surgical technology and surgical assistant scope of practice is determined by the delagatory decisions made by ?
Most surgical technology programs are accredited through?
Who is responsible for ensuring accredited ST programs are engaged in an ongoing quest for quality?
__ is an integrated system developed by hospitals for the prevention and control of areas of potential liability?
Malpractice and negligence fall under what kind of law?
unintentional tort law
A “time out” period should take place immediately before starting the procedure in order to verify:
correct patient, procedure, surgical site and side, when applicable when implant placement is completed, everyone must agree
__ is the term used if a member of the surgical team leaves a patient who is dependent on his or her presence as a caregiver?
Consent may be given in either two formats?
express or implied
__ dictates the methods of securing a consent under emergency circumstances?
The written instructions dealing with the right of an incapacitated patient to self-determination is called?
Benevolence, trustworthiness, and honesty are examples of?
__ is a process of external quality review used by higher education to scrutinize colleges, universities, and educational programs for quality assurance and quality improvement?
__ has become the best weapon for the reduction of medical errors?
The __ is the first ever federal standards that establishes privacy standards to protect patient’s medical records and other health related information?
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act HIPAA
Hospital employees who commit negligent acts are typically covered by?
insurance polices through facility
__ recognizes patient safety as being an item of the highest priority and strongly urges individual hospitals and health care organizations to take all reasonable measures to prevent the retention of foreign bodies in the surgical wound.
American College of Surgeons
The neutral zone should be established for the placement of?
A key characteristic that the surgical technologist should exhibit and constantly improve on is?
communication, technique, problem solving skills, education
If there is a settlement against a specific health care provider and there is no malpractice insurance to cover the settlement, the judge may?
attach a lien on property of defendant or money obtained from future earnings
To establish negligence, which of the following must be proven?
that the defendant had a duty to the patient, and they breached that duty failing to conform to the required standard of conduct, defendants negligence caused harm to patient and plaintiff was in fact harmed
The goal of the surgical consent is to ?
guarantee that patient is aware of their condition, proposed intervention, risks, and alternatives that may occur–> protect the patient
What type of instrument finish is useful for procedures involving a laser?
Knives, scalpels, and scissors are classified as __ instruments?
The term knife is used interchangbley with the term __?
Curvid Iris and and Potts-smtih scissors are frequently used to dissect __ tissues?
Strabismus and corneal scissors are most often used for __ procedures?
The most frequently used scissors for cutting sutures are the __?
Lane, Kern, Lowman, and Lewin are examples of ?
bone holding forceps
Clamping instruments are designed to __?
occlude or constrict tissue
Instruments designed for the exposure of the operative site are called?
Instruments used to hold a curved suture needle for suturing are called?
Yankauer and Poole suction tips are commonly used for?
aspiration of abdominal fluids
The suction tip typically used for ear procedures is the ?
Rosen suction tip
An instrument that penetrates a body cavity for drainage of fluid is called a?
General abdominal procedures typically require a __ instrument set?
major or minor laparotomy set
Scopes typically used for cystoscopy, laparoscopy, and thoracoscopy are called?
The scope used for exploration of the biliary system is called?
The scope used for visualization of the heart and major vessels is called an?
The scope used for visualization of a fetus in utero is called a?
The tool used for inserting sharp pins to reduce a bone fracture or guide a driven nail is called?
What machine uses electric impulses to generate heat and is cooled by air or fluid that flows through the power cord?
What machine infuses CO2 gas into the abdominal cavity?
Drapes that have an adhesive backing that can be impregnated with an antimicrobial iodine agent are called?
Drapes that have openings for exposure of the area to be incised are called?
Sponges used for procedures requiring smaller incisions are called?
The type of surgical dressing that eliminates dead space and prevents edema or post-op bleeding is called?
What is used for wounds that require frequent dressing changes?
Cylindrical tubes that allow for the removal of air or fluids from the body are called?
What is used to irrigate wounds, aspirate fluids, or inject medications?
Give an example of a type of suprapubic catheter?
Foley, Pezzer, Malcot, Coude
The chest tube collection unit must be maintained?
The rectus femoris and vastus lateralis are part of what muscle group?
The concave indentation that serves as the socket for the head of the femur is called?
An example of an irregular bone is the__?
The acromion is part of which bone?
The pneumatic tourniquet is routinely inflated__?
This chemical is also referred to as bone cement?
During an ACL reconstruction, which instrument might a surgeon use to remove excess bone from the femoral tunnel?
ACL graft material that is take from a cadaver is known as?
In an ACL reconstruction, which device is used immediately following the insertion of the tibial guide?
What two bones are involved in a patella harvest for an ACL reconstruction?
Tibia and patella
The goal of the ulnar nerve transposition is to free the ulnar nerve from the ?
epicondyle groove and move it anteriorly
Names given to types of bunion repairs?
chevron repair, and austin moore
What medical condition is characterized by a lateral curvature of the spinal column and may require a posterior Spinal fusion with the use of a Harrington rod?
Bartholin’s glands are located within__?
The pH of vaginal fluid is?
The uterine lining is called the __?
The ligament that supports the bulk of the ovary is called the __ ligament?
The uterine tubes are contained within the __ ligament?
The uterine appendages __?
fallopian tubes and ovaries
What is the synonym for the fallopian tube?
What causes descent of the fetus through the pelvic canal?
The term gravida indicates?
the # of pregnancies
In what position is the patient generally placed into for a D and C?
What accessories are needed for the OR table in order to place the patient into the lithotomy poistion?
Stirrups and foot holders
The term used to describe abnormal labor or childbirth is __?
The Pfannenstiel incision is what type of incision?
lower transverse abdominal
The internal cervical os is the __?
junction between the corpus uteri and the cervix
The three layers of the uterine wall are?
visceral peritoneum, endometrium, and myometrium
The two hormones from the anterior pituitary that stimulate the ovarian cycle__?
luteninizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone
Where is the most common site for ectopic pregnancy?
The absence or abnormal stoppage of the menses is called?
The most significant cause of morbidity during a cesarean section is?
A DeLee suction device is used ?
to clear the neonates airway
The posterior colporrhaphy is performed to_?
A fole catheter is used routinely during pelvic procedures to __?
decompress the bladder
Total abdominal hysterectomy involves the removal of what structures?
Cerlage is performed to_?
close the incompetent cervic
The ovaries function?
is the production and expulsion of oocytes and the release of the hormones estrogen and progesterone
restore tubal patency
The external female genitalia are collectively referred to as the _?
The fundis is the _?
dome like portion of the uterus
annular recess created by the cervical-vaginal junction
A pap smear is performed to rule out__?
Endometriosis is _?
When the cells from the uterus grow outside of the uterine cavity
In what position is the patient placed for a total abdominal hysterectomy?
pouch is created
A fibroid is a benign tumor found?
Indigo carmine is used following tuboplasty to demonstrate?
The term D and C represents?
dialation and curretage
Cystocele is prolapse of the __?
Vaginal hysterectomy is used to describe the removal of?
uterus through vaginal incision
During which stage of labor is the placenta delivered?
Arterial blood supply to the uterus is provided by the_?
uterine branch of the paired internal iliac arteries
A curette is a surgical instrument used to ?
scape off a tissue specimen
What is the most common reason for the performance of a cesarean section?
failure to progress
Salpingectomy is the removal of the __?
The name given to the external female genetalia is the?
The external female genitalia is vascularized by the branches of the __?
The name of the female erectile tissue located directly above the urtethral orifice is known as the __?
What female gland secretes a lubricating mucoid substance?
The perineum in the female is the area between which two structures?
Inferior vaginal opening and the anus
The name given to the cervical-vaginal junction is the__?
What name is given to the ligament that suspends the uterus anteriorly?
What name is given the the ligament that suspends the uterus laterally?
Arterial blood supply to the uterus is derived from the uterine branch of what artery?
Another name given to the fallopian tubes is the ?
The fallopian tubes are divided into four regions?
fibria, ampulla, isthmus, and intramural region
The name given to where the fallopian tubes enter into the uterus is called the __?
Arterial blood supply to the fallopian tubes is derived from what arteries?
Ovarian and uterine arteries
What two hormones do the ovaries release?
estrogen and progesterone
What hormone does the corpus luteum secrete?
What hormone is responsible for maintaining the growth of the uterine lining in preperation for the fertilzied egg?
estrogen and progesterone
A common drug given to induce labor is?
What is the best suture choice for closing an episiotomy?
What instruments is typically placed onto the fascia during a cesarean section?
How many counts are performed during a cesarean section?
What is the term used to describe conversion of a closed cavity into an open pouch?
What is another name given to an anterior and posterior repair?
What is the name given to a fistula that forms between the bladder and vagina?
vesico vaginal fistula
The xiphoid proces is the __ portion of the sternum?
The gallbladder is found in the __ abdominal quadrant.
Another name for the iliac region of the abdomen is??
The linea alba is found __?
runs down the midline
The lon vertical, strip like muscle of the abdominal wallis the __?
Another name for the alimentary canal is the __ tract?
The inner layer of the digestive tract wall is called the ??
Parasympathetic innervation to the stomach is provided by the __ nerve?
The three portions of the small intestine are the ?
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
The appendix is attached to the ?
What is the function of the omenta?
limits peritoneal infection
What gland has both exocrine and endocrine functions?
What is the largest parenchymal organ in the abdominal cavity?
The outer layer of the digestive tract wall is called the __?
What is the following is a function of the colon?
production of vitamin K
The beta cells of the islets of Langerhans are responsible for the production of ?
What organ is the single largest mass of lymphatic tissue in the body?
Bile is produced by the__?
What is the function of the liver?
The biliary tract terminates at the __?
Sphincter of Oddi
A kocher-type of incision is__?
In what position is the patient placed when a McBurney’s incision will be used?
A diaphragmatic hernia is located within Hesselbach’s trinagle?
Nissen fundoplication is the procedure performed to correct ?
Gastrostomy is the __?
surgical creation of an opening from gastric mucosa to the skin
Gastroscopy is accomplished by inserting the gastroscope through the __?
The use of a Penrose drain is often employed during inguinal herniorrhaphy?
trap spermatic cord
The term dysphagia means difficulty?
Maloney dialators are used to dilate the __?
A purse-string suture is used_?
tighten or close an opening
What incisional approach is most common for appendectomy?
An end ileostomy is created from the __?
terminal portion of the ileum
The term chyme refers to __?
semifluid mass of partially digested food
Removal of the gallbladder is called?
The condition of gallstones is called?
What is the function of a T-tube?
tube used to drain, bile
What portion is used to displace the abdominal contents to enhance the surgeon’s view of the lower abdominal region?
Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy involves the removal of the __?
head of the pancreas, distal 1/3rd of the stomach, all of the duodenum, proximal 10 cm of the jejunum, the gallbladder, they cystic and common bile ducts, and lymph nodes
Modified radical mastectomy involves removal of ___?
the breast, pectoralis muscles are preserved
Modified radical mastectomy involves removal of ?
the breast, pectoralis muscles are preserved
Removal of all parathyroid glands leads to __?
tetany and death
What position will the patient be placed in to facilitate thyroidectomy?
supine with neck extension
Tracheotomy is the __?
creation of a tracheal stoma
Insufflation of the abdomen is achieved with the use of ?
Hemorrhoids are removed with the patient in the __ position?
The flow of food and liquids from the stomach to the small intestine is controlled by the?
The surgical connection of two hollow or tubular structures is called?
The incidence of pancreated cancer is highest in the __?
highest in the pancreatic head and ampulla vater
The primary indication for a splenectomy is __?
laceration secondary to trauma
Segmental resection of the breast refers to the removal of ?
only the tumor and a reasonable margin of healthy tissue
Mastectomy is the removal of the __?
entire mammary gland breast
What hormone increases the calcium levels in the blood?
Complications of thyrotoxicosis include?
List the symptoms of hypothyroidism?
nervousness, restlessness, emotional lability, fast speech, tachycardia, palpitations, arrhythmias, dyspnea, hear intolerance, sweating, fatigue, weakness, tremor, hair loss, nail separating from nail bed
During a thyroidectomy, it is important to preserve the __?
recurrent laryngeal nerve
Once the peritoneum is entered, lap sponges should be?
Moistened with warm saline
What suture technique is applied when closing the indirect hernia sac?
A Bilroth I or II refers to an __?
Roux-en-Y technique is most commonly used to repair?
What procedure is used to treat cancer of the rectum?
What renal filtration structure restricts the movement of blood, cells, and large molecules?
glomerular capillary endothelium
What portion of the renal tubule system is responsible for increasing the surface area for enhanced absorption and secretion?
proximal convoluted tubule
The medial border of the kidneys that receives the renal blood vessels is called the?
What outer portion of the kidney contains glomeruli?
What structure unite to form the renal pelvis?
What artery provides the blood supply to the kidney?
What muscle is responsible for emptying the bladder and closing the bladder orifice?
What important clinical landmark is marked by ureteral and urethral orifices?
What artery provides blood supply to the bladder?
The portion of the skin covering the distal base of the penis that forms a free fold is the?
prepuce or foreskin
The proximal portion of the male urethra is the __?
What portion of the male reproductive system can be found passing through the spermatic cord and eventually conducting semen into the prostatic urethra?
What rare condition is indicated by an overproduction of cortisol by the cortex of the adrenal gland?
What congenital condition is marked by the absence of the anterior wall of the urethra?
What blood test can indicate the possibility of prostatic cancer?
PSA–prostate specific antigen
What diagnostic tool involves the use of intravenous dye and radiological films to view the urological system?
What extraperitoneal incisional option can be used to access the lower portion of the ureter?
What surgical procedure involves diverting urine flow through an isolated loop of bowel?
What suture would be appropriate for closure of a ureterotomy?
Mild stress incontinence in women can be reduced by an?
The procedure involving the removal of only the testis and the epidymis?
What surgical instrument is used to remove tissue fragments from within the bladder during a transurethral resection of the prostate, TURP?
Ellik evacuator or Toomey syringe
Which prostatectomy procedure involves an incision into the bladder to remove the prostate en bloc?
The right kidney is located slightly lower than the left, due to the?
What is the acceptable fluid when doing a TURP?
glycine and sorbitol
The term working element refers to the?
What is the medical term for kidney stones?
What do the medulla of the adrenal glands secrete?
epinephrine and norepinephrine
The kidneys are bound by the __ muscles on the medial side?
The vascular supply for the ureters in the pelvic section come form the?
The male urethra is approximately __ in length?
The tunica albuginea__?
covers the testes
Pheochromocytoma is a tumor affecting the__?
medulla of adrenal gland
Addison’s disease affects the ?
In which type of dialysis is the dialysate drained by gravity?
peritoneal dialysis, CAPD, CCPD
Phimosis is a condition affecting the __?
prepuce or foreskin, prevents it from retracting
The condition of undescended testes is?
The aggressive type of testicular cancer malignancy usually strikes males between the ages of?
A white blood cell count over __ usually indicates infection?
Metaiodobenzylguanidine MIBG is a nuclear medicine study that is specifically designed to?
detect and locate pheochormocytoma
The O’connor shield is ?
disposable item that allows visualization of prostatic urethra through rectum without contamination
A __ incision is usually used for an adrenalectomy, a renal biopsy, or the removal of a small low-lying kidney?
traditional–flank or lumbar
What tumor is the most common pediatric tumor of the abdomen?
Wilm’s tumor, nephroblastoma
If the pleural cavity is entered, what should the STSR anticipate?
chest tube insertion
If seeding of malignant cells is a concern, the bladder may be filled with __ prior to the urethral transection?
The Marshall-Marchettie-Krantz procedure may be performed in conjunction with a __?
Varicocelectomy is a procedure to repair?
abnormal dilation of the spermatic veins in the spermatic cord
What is a cholesteatoma?
benign cyst or tumor that fills the mastoid cavity
Why is Gelfoam used in ENT surgical procedures?
What does the term apnea mean?
What does the term congenital mean?
present at birth
What is the superior opening into the larynx called?
Hemorrhage from the nose is described as?
The olfactory sense is the sense of?
What is the name of the lowest tracheal cartilage that forms a ridge between the right and left main stem bronchi?
Enlargement of a structure due to an increase in the size of its cells is called?
Otosclerosis is the term used to describe?
bony overgrowth of the stapes
The pinna is also know as the?
ear or auricle
Name the three sections of the pharynx?
nasopharynx, otopharynx, laryngopharynx
What tonsils are removed during the procedure called tonsillectomy?
palatine of faucial
What tonsils are removed during the procedure called adenoidectomy?
What are the conchae?
scroll-shaped bony elements, forming the upper chambers of the naval cavity
What term describes the concavity on the tympanic membrane where the malleus is attached?
A reduction of hearing is referred to as?
active noise reduction-ANR
What is the usual cause of a vocal cord nodule?
In what position will the adult patient be placed to undergo tonsillectiomy under local anesthesia?
What is the most common autologous site for securing a graft for tympanoplasty?
Panendoscopy may involve viewing of the?
lining of the esophagus, stomach and upper duodenum
What structures are removed during UPPP?
tonsils, adenoids, uvula, and a portion of soft palate
Name the structure that separates the outer and middle ear?
Name the ossicles of the middle ear from lateral to medial?
malleus, incus, and stapes
The footplate of the stapes rests upon the?
What fluid fills the spaces of the bony labyrinth?
What is the function of the cristae located in the inner ear?
maintain dynamic equilibrium
The seventh cranial nerve is also called?
An otoscope is used to view the?
Why is nitrous oxide NOT used during reconstructive ear surgery?
causes expansion of the middle ear and can cause dislocation of a tympanic membrane graft