It reverses atherosclerosis
It lowers HDL-cholesterol
It increases insulin resistance
It raises the number of immune cells in adipose tissue
It reverses atherosclerosis
It lowers HDL-cholesterol
It increases insulin resistance
It raises the number of immune cells in adipose tissue
Males are usually taller than females
Females have lower levels of thyroid hormones
Males have a higher percentage of lean body mass
Females have a lower percentage of adipose tissue
more body fat.
more muscle mass.
Most are aware of their condition and seek treatment
Fewer than 200 women die each year from the disease
Among those who are treated, many relapse into abnormal eating patterns
During initial treatment, metabolism slows and appetite increases but thereafter subsides
Blacks have a higher average height than whites
Blacks have denser bones and higher body protein concentrations than whites
Blacks tend to have different proportions of brown and white adipose tissue than whites
The fat pads in blacks are situated primarily around the hips, whereas in whites the pads are primarily abdominal
feel guilty after you overeat.
keep a record of your eating habits.
always clean your plate when you eat.
have someone watch you to prevent overeating.
They produce long-lasting results just like healthy diets
They limit food choices, thereby reducing energy intake
They are balanced and therefore do not require a dietary supplement
Their success depends on the ratios of macronutrients more so than the total energy value
No exercise can target fat removal from any specific area of the body
Upper body fat is mostly unaffected by exercising lower body muscles
Lower body fat in women is depleted at a faster rate than abdominal fat
Abdominal fat in men is released more readily with anaerobic exercise
Elevated body temperature
Abnormal hunger regulation
Weight regain almost never occurs
It is always an irreversible medical procedure
It is less effective than traditional liposuction
It diminishes the amount of food that can be eaten without GI distress
Minimum weight of a person
Maximum weight of a person
Point at which a person’s weight plateaus before dropping again quickly
Point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight
Walking a mile uses about the same energy as running a mile
Walking a mile uses about half as much energy as running a mile
Exercising the leg muscles is effective at burning away fat primarily around the thighs and hips
Exercising the abdominal muscles is effective at burning away fat primarily around the abdomen
Leptin deficiency causes lower levels of ghrelin
Leptin deficiency enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure
Leptin deficiency causes psychological depression, which leads to increased food intake
Leptin deficiency reduces the desire to do physical activity, resulting in more excess energy available for fat storage
Nowadays, obesity is not seen in developing countries
Prevalence of obesity has leveled out in the last few years in the U.S.
The cut-off figure of the BMI for obesity varies from country to country
The obesity in other countries does not seem to increase risks for chronic diseases
Deficiencies lead to ‘wet’ beriberi
Even marginal deficiency impairs cognitive function
Excess intake leads to loss of appetite and constipation
Severe deficiency is characterized chiefly by free-radical damage
Attaches to RNA to assist in the synthesis of an enzyme
Attaches to cell membranes to assist in uptake of an enzyme
Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place
Attaches to an enzyme, which allows for transport of the enzyme through the circulation
Most people who take supplements consume a poor diet
Most people should take supplements daily because of the great difficulty in obtaining the needed amounts from food
People who have low energy intakes or are pregnant are at risk for developing deficiencies and may benefit from supplementation
People should take supplements daily because nutrition surveys in the U.S. and Canada have detected deficiencies in some population groups
Excreted primarily in the urine
Excreted primarily in the feces
Stored in liver, bone, and adipose tissue
athletes who are engaged in intense competitive events.
people with low energy intakes, such as habitual dieters and the elderly.
Most of them are synthesized by intestinal bacteria
Intestinal transport occurs by way of the portal circulation
Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet
Toxicity risk is higher for vitamins E and K than for other fat-soluble vitamins
Promotes secretion of calcitonin
Promotes synthesis of 7-dehydrocholesterol
Promotes synthesis of carotenoids and controls absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
They are found in many vegetables and fruits
Most carotenoids can be converted to vitamin A
Carotenoid absorption is inhibited by foods rich in chlorophyll
The carotenoid with the highest conversion rate to vitamin A is lycopene
Functions as a hormone-like substance
Toxicity symptoms include bone abnormalities
Deficiencies occur from inability to absorb dietary lipids
Important food sources include enriched breads and pasta
Children ages 2-12 years
iron and copper.
Vitamin E interferes with barbiturate pain medications
The antioxidant activity affects stability of most anesthetic agents
Vitamin E acts as a blood thinner and could lead to excessive bleeding
The antioxidant activity interferes with synthesis of replacement erythrocytes
mostly food coloring.
high-potency vitamin C.
dehydrated alfalfa and parsley.
dried extracts of spoiled meats.
The total amount available from plant and animal food
The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body
The amount that escapes destruction from food processing
The number of different chemical forms of the same vitamin
Liver, yogurt, milk
Brussels sprouts, broccoli, strawberries
Banana, peanut butter, canned tuna fish
Whole grains, pork, fortified corn flakes
Thiamin adenine dinucleotide
Thiamin flavin mononucleotide
Those taking vitamin A supplements
Those consuming more than 100 g of carrots daily
Light energy strikes the retina and excites pigments to release retinal
Light energy strikes the cornea and excites pigments to release retinoic acid
Visual pigments deep in the brain are excited by light transmitted through the retina
Epithelial cells on the surface of the eye respond to light energy by transmitting opsin molecules along nerve pathways to the brain
Both act as antioxidants
Both are found in animal fats
Neither is involved in free radical control
Neither is involved in synthesis of retinal
1 to 2 months
1 to 2 years
High intakes of white rice
Low intakes of whole grains
High intakes of unrefined rice
Low intakes of enriched grains
Raw egg whites
Stability to heat is good
Deficiency leads to beriberi
Requirements are proportional to body weight
Significant amounts are found in citrus products
The bioavailability of vitamin D from soy milk is low
Lifeguards on southern beaches have increased risk for vitamin D toxicity
Most adults living in the southern United States need small amounts of dietary vitamin D
The average consumption in the United States does not meet the recommended intake
Exposure to sunlight
They are destroyed by cigarette smoking
They arise from normal metabolic reactions
They typically stop chain reactions associated with the production of peroxides
They are known to accumulate even in the presence of abundant antioxidant nutrients
Neither is found in animal fats
Neither is transported by chylomicrons
They may exist in the cis or trans form
They are both needed to prevent erythrocyte hemolysis
Powdered skim milk
Some minerals are destroyed by heat
Some minerals are destroyed by UV light
Much care is needed to preserve minerals during food preparation
Once minerals enter the bloodstream, they remain in the body until excreted
Within the lungs
Within blood vessels
Weight loss adversely affects bone density
Negative energy balance typically reduces calcium absorption
A low-calcium diet promotes similar bone loss in normal and overweight people
People with BMIs over 30 have denser bones than their counterparts with BMIs around 25
Rich sources include fresh vegetables
Dietary deficiencies are virtually unknown
Absorption is known to be reduced by soft drink consumption
Its participation in bone synthesis requires equivalent intake of dietary calcium
Fluoride increases calcium absorption, which increases crystal formation of teeth
Decay is inhibited due to neutralization of organic acids produced by bacteria on the teeth
Decay is reduced due to the inhibitory effects of fluoride on growth of bacteria on the teeth
Fluoride becomes incorporated into the crystalline structure of teeth, making them less susceptible to decay
Helps blood to clot
Inhibits the formation of free radicals
Stabilizes the alcohol content of beer
Acts as a cross-linking agent in collagen
A deficiency leads to hypothyroidism
Supplements are well known to be helpful
Whole grains represent an excellent source
In the body, it enhances the action of ceruloplasmin
Taking then with milk
Taking them with orange juice
Taking them on an empty stomach rather than with meals
Taking them in the form of the ferric salt rather than the ferrous salt
discoloration of teeth.
nutritional muscular dystrophy.
The practice of pica may enhance iron absorption
Changes in behavior precede the appearance of anemia
The practice of pica may delay the onset of iron-induced behavioral changes
Adults are more resistant to iron-induced behavioral changes than children
Natural salt content of foods
Salt added during cooking and at the table
Taking them with a meal enhances absorption of calcium
Taking them with iron supplements enhances absorption of iron
Supplements of calcium carbonate show higher bioavailability than calcium citrate
Small pills containing a large amount of calcium salt show faster dissolution in the stomach
retention of sodium.
excretion of calcium.
constriction of blood vessels.
Participates in wound healing
Helps maintain gastric acidity
Acts as principal intracellular electrolyte
Protects bone structures against degeneration
A calcium-binding protein
A drug that treats osteoporosis
A calcium supplement with high bioavailability
A form of calcium used in fortifying soy products
Helps with gastric digestion
Helps maintain acid-base balance
Discoloration of teeth
Poor performance in school
Thyroxine: zinc transporter
Globulin: transports zinc into cells
Transferrin: essential to zinc excretion
Metallothionein: promotes zinc homeostasis
high blood T3 levels.
high blood thyroxine levels.
Size of red blood cells
Number of red blood cells
DNA content of red blood cells
Hemoglobin content of red blood cells
Caffeine inhibits water absorption from the GI tract
Caffeine is known to act as a diuretic only when consumed as coffee or tea
Regular intake of caffeine promotes an increase in water retention of the interstitial fluid volume
Habitual consumers of caffeine lose almost no more fluid from the body than when ingesting noncaffeinated beverages
moderate alcohol intake.
having African American heritage.
Abnormal cellular structures seen in osteoporosis
The calcium-rich crystalline structure of teeth and bones
A calcium regulatory hormone secreted from the trabeculae region of bone
A compound in plant foods that binds to calcium and phosphorus and inhibits absorption
Low testosterone levels
Seeds and nuts
Fermented dairy products
Spinach and sweet potatoes
tissue stimulating hormone.
It is higher with vegetarian diets
It is higher in people with iron deficiency
It is lower when iron is in the form of heme rather than non-heme
It is higher in adults than children due to more mature intestinal function
It is characterized by acrodermatitis
It is found primarily in women of child-bearing age
It is associated with defects of copper and zinc absorption
It is the most common genetic disorder in the United States
Enhances the activity of insulin
Deficiency symptoms in people are unknown
Unusually poor food sources are legumes and cereal grains
Toxicity symptoms in human beings include damage to red blood cells
Pancreatic enzymes are rich in zinc
The body’s primary excretory route is urine
Good food sources are whole-grain products
Toxicity symptoms include constipation and low body temperature
Most of the body’s iron is recycled
The chief storage site for iron is the intestinal epithelium
Iron is absorbed better from supplements than from foods
Iron from nonheme food sources is absorbed better than that from heme food sources
does not seem to increase fat oxidation.
enhanced carbohydrate oxidation rate but not fat oxidation.
raised muscle carnitine concentration but did not improve performance.
promoted retention of amino acids but did not lead to increased muscle mass.
TCA cycle intermediates.
1-2 minutes each.
5-10 minutes each.
15 minutes each.
2 minutes warm-up and 4 minutes cool-down.
Normal mixed diet with vitamin supplements
Utilized as a fuel within the muscle cells only
Released into the bloodstream to provide fuel for brain cells
Released into the bloodstream to replenish liver glycogen as needed
Utilized to support lung and heart function under conditions of intense physical performance
Fat that is stored closest to the exercising muscle is oxidized first
Fat represents the major fuel source during sustained, moderate activity
Fat oxidization makes more of a contribution as the intensity of the exercise increases
Fat is burned in higher quantities during short, high-intensity exercises than prolonged, low-intensity exercises
50% of the available fat.
10% of the available water.
90% of the available protein.
20% of the available glycogen.
At rest, about 90% of the fuel is derived from glucose
At rest, about 90% of the fuel is derived from fat
Muscles always use a mixture of fuels at rest or during physical activity
During physical activity, amino acids contribute most of the fuel
Mixed meal taken within 4 hours
Mixed meal taken within 30 minutes
High-carbohydrate meal taken within 2 hours
High-carbohydrate meal taken within 15 minutes
Neither involves mandatory body movement
Neither involves enhanced energy expenditure
Physical activity, but not exercise, involves muscle contractions
Exercise, but not physical activity, is thought to be vigorous, structured, and planned
The anemia is not correctible by extra iron intake
The anemia is most likely the result of folate deficiency
The iron will interfere with creatine phosphate synthesis
The iron will not be absorbed well because of the intense work-outs
Lifting free weights
Excessive use shortens life span
Low cost accounts for some of its popularity
Excessive use leads to shrinking of internal organs
Laboratory tests can differentiate between the naturally occurring form and the drug form of growth hormone
They need to replace sodium during the event
They should eat pretzels during the second half of the event
They can easily replace sodium loss by consuming conventional sports drinks during the event
They are susceptible to hyponatremia if they refrain from adequate sodium intake during the event
It may enhance performance of endurance athletes
Long-term use adversely affects liver and kidney function
It may enhance performance of weight lifters and sprinters
It induces short-term weight loss consisting primarily of lean tissue
Vitamin and mineral supplements
It stimulates fatty acid release
It enhances performance for almost all athletes
It raises blood pH to counteract the buildup of lactate
It promotes absorption of electrolytes from the intestinal tract
Caffeine may enhance short-term, high-intensity performance
Carnitine supplements appear to increase the concentration of muscle carnitine
Ribose supplements permit longer, more intense workouts in most athletes
Chromium supplements (as chromium picolinate) appear to enhance fat oxidation in most athletes
they may provide a psychological advantage.
they are better than water at preventing sodium depletion.
they contain a source of fuel, which may enhance performance in endurance events.
they have a good taste, which encourages their consumption and ensures adequate hydration.
It is not metabolized in muscle
It inhibits glycogen breakdown
It inhibits creatine phosphate synthesis
It interferes with ATP synthesis in the liver
Breathing is easy
Training regimen is optimal
Balanced diets were ingested
High-glycemic index foods were ingested
Some studies indicate that vitamin E supplementation for 3 weeks protects against the development of sports anemia in women
Some studies show that vitamin E in high doses seems to protect against exercise-induced oxidative stress whereas others show the opposite
Some studies show that vitamin E supplements improve aerobic performance by 25-30% in endurance athletes competing outdoors in air-polluted environments
Some studies show that high-dose vitamin E intake protects against premature oxidation of conjugated linoleic acid supplements, which serve as a unique fuel for strength athletes
It is not a true iron-deficiency anemia
It is usually corrected by iron supplementation
It is found primarily in over-conditioned athletes
It is associated with reduced cardiorespiratory fitness
one-half VO2 max.
cardiac conditioned index.
They can store more glycogen
They are more efficient at converting fat to glucose
They contain fewer mitochondria due to increased glucose utilization
They rely less on fat breakdown and more on glucose oxidation for energy
The oxygenated types are beneficial in endurance events
They provide a source of lactate to stimulate the Cori cycle
One serving provides about a third of the RDA for most vitamins and calcium
They usually contain less carbohydrate and electrolytes than typical sports drinks
Removal of lactic acid
Transfer of energy to make ATP
Removal of nitrogen waste products
Transfer of phosphate to muscle fiber
The fiber delays absorption of fat
The fiber interferes with glycolysis
The meal crowds out more energy-dense foods
The fiber retains water in the GI tract that would otherwise be absorbed
When taken right before an event, they have been shown to benefit performance
Moderate amounts have been shown to improve the performance of most elite athletes
They may be beneficial for athletes who struggle to meet their energy requirements
Except perhaps for iron, they are needed in high amounts to meet the needs of athletes exposed to hot and humid weather conditions
Increased fiber intake
Reduction of blood lipids
Alteration of hormonal profile
Reduction of dietary fat intake
It is released as fatty acids from internal fat stores and subcutaneous fat
Upon commencement of an activity, blood fatty acids rise to provide an immediate source of fuel
Fat that is present within the muscle fiber represents the primary source of energy for that muscle
After consumption of a high-fat diet for at least 3 days, physical activities are performed as efficiently as from intake of a high-carbohydrate diet
Diets high in fat lead to a fall in amino acid utilization for fuel
Diets lacking in carbohydrates lead to increased amino acid utilization for fuel
Deficiencies of vitamins have no effect on performance provided that all other nutrients are adequate
Deficiencies of minerals have no effect on performance provided that all other nutrients are adequate
Protein use in endurance events is less than for strength events
Protein use for energy is significant in anaerobic strength training
Protein contributes up to 10% of total fuel used, which is similar to the resting state
Protein contributes approximately the same amount to total energy use on high-carbohydrate or high-fat diets
Loss of muscle size and strength
Muscle cramps arising from insufficient warm-up
Muscle spasms resulting from too-rapid progressive overloading
Alterations in heart muscle contractions when first initiating a fitness program
1 1/2 hours.
all high-quality protein drinks are equivalent despite the price differences.
the extra protein he needs should be high-quality lean sources of poultry and fish.
he most likely already gets more protein from his regular diet than he needs, even for endurance activity.
no sports authority organizations recommend protein intakes greater than the RDA for endurance athletes.
An organ from which the infant receives nourishment
A muscular organ within which the infant develops before birth
The developing infant from the eighth week after conception until birth
The developing infant during its second through eighth week after conception
Fall in blood pressure
Elevated blood glucose
A large weight gain over a short time
Chronic episodes of pica over the last 2 trimesters
first half of pregnancy.
second half of pregnancy.
first month after delivery.
first trimester of pregnancy.
The folate supplementation prevents pernicious anemia, which increases the risk of spina bifida
The folate supplementation is needed to ensure a large store that can be utilized by the growing fetus
As long as supplementation begins the day pregnancy is confirmed, there is no risk of defects
The neural tube develops early on in pregnancy, oftentimes before the woman realizes she is pregnant
The virus cannot be transmitted through the breast milk
Breastfeeding is always prohibited for an HIV-infected mother
The HIV virus reverts to a dormant stage triggered by postpartum amenorrhea
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding by HIV-positive women for the first 6 months of infant life in developing countries
Mercury, but not lead, can easily cross the placenta
Lead and mercury both damage the fetal nervous system
Pregnant women are advised to limit consumption of shark and swordfish to no more than once per week
Pregnant women are advised to avoid shellfish around the critical period of brain development but may resume normal intake thereafter
Vegan diets require supplements of selenium, zinc, and manganese
Breast milk from vegetarian women is lower in protein but higher in fiber
It is possible that a vegetarian diet can support a healthy pregnancy and normal lactation
The increase in appetite during pregnancy allows a vegan pregnant woman to easily meet or exceed her energy requirements
affects the brain primarily.
decreases total nutrient needs.
affects every organ except the brain.
begins and ends earlier in girls than in boys.
It provides an opportunity to learn about nutrition
It meets federally mandated school nutrition guidelines
It provides carbohydrate for maintenance of blood glucose and brain function
It helps decrease the symptoms of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in 5% of school-age children
They must follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans
They allow for low-fat menus while still meeting the needs for iron
They ensure a lunch period long enough to consume the entire meal
They are overwhelmingly preferred over the foods obtained by students through on-site vending machines and snack bars
specific inducible episode.
transient immune suppression.
The recommended daily fat intake up to age 12 is age plus 20 g
There is an RDA for total fat for children beginning at 3 years of age
Low-fat diets usually provide sufficient amounts of the micronutrients
Fat intakes below 30% of total energy do not impair growth provided that total energy intake is adequate
Immunity in older people does not seem to be affected by regular exercise
In the United States, infectious diseases are a minor cause of deaths in the elderly
Immune function does not decline with age in people who maintain good nutrition
Antibiotics are often ineffective in treating infections in older people who have deficient immune systems
Over 65 years
Over 85 years
high-cost nutritious meals.
opportunity for social interactions.
counseling and referral to other social services.
The DRI is 800-1000 mg
Calcium intakes are well below recommendations
Calcium supplements are not effective sources of calcium due to poor digestibility
Calcium from food is not well absorbed due to the intake of calcium-binding laxatives
A metallic taste in the mouth appears
Blood concentrations of the drugs increase
The bioavailability of the drugs falls substantially
The bioflavonoids in the juice bind to the drugs and promote formation of uric acid crystals
diminished muscle mass.
A serious neural tube defect
The World Intervention and Conception program of the United Nations
An environmental contaminant that may interfere with breast milk production
A food and nutrition services program for pregnant women, children, and infants
Weight gain is generally steady throughout pregnancy for normal-weight women
Most women are unable to lose all of the weight that was gained during pregnancy
Sudden, large weight gain in pregnancy may signal the development of hypotension
Overweight pregnant women should gain as much weight as underweight pregnant women
To improve the flavor of breast milk
To increase iron content of breast milk
To replace the iron stores she lost during pregnancy
To account for the re-start of menstruation that usually occurs 1-2 months postpartum
exposure to the sun.
tropical fruit juices.
vitamin D supplements.
It affects brain function before anemia sets in
It rarely develops in those with high intakes of milk
It is the primary factor in tension-fatigue syndrome
Mild deficiency enhances mental performance by lowering physical activity level, thereby leading to increased attention span
They eat more snacks
They sleep more hours
They consume more sugar and fat
They eat more and are less active physically
They are used in about 1% of the infant population
They contain cornstarch and sucrose rather than lactose
They are identical to milk-based formulas except for the protein source
They are not acceptable to vegan families because the formulas contain omega-3 fatty acids from fish
Infants fed fat-free milk are at risk for protein overload
Most of the energy in breast milk is derived from lactose
The brain of an infant uses less glucose than that of an adult
Infants require about 25% more energy than adults when expressed per kg body weight
Juice bottle erosion
Nursing bottle tooth decay
the cost of administering congregate meals is lower.
there are more social benefits to congregate meals.
nutritional benefits are greater with congregate meals.
more meals per week are served with congregate meals.
It acts as a sedative and barbiturate
It promotes wound healing and blood clotting
It interferes with the synthesis of prostaglandins
It binds to nerve receptors involved in pain perception
Low antioxidant intake
Body weight after age 70
eating more legumes.
drinking more water.
increasing physical activity.
taking vitamin B12 injections.
Regular physical activity
In men, CHD begins 10-15 years earlier than in women
Women who take estrogen to reduce the risk for osteoporosis are at significantly higher risk for CHD
Men with blood cholesterol levels in the borderline-high range account for up to 10% of all deaths from CHD
Women younger than 45 years of age tend to have higher LDL cholesterol than do men of that age, but this difference disappears after menopause
yin and yang medicine.
Most people with hypertension have BMIs <25 Most people with hypertension are extremely salt sensitive Three to 4 alcohol drinks per day lowers risk for hypertension African Americans develop high blood pressure earlier in life and their average blood pressure is higher than others
Eliminating the use of table salt altogether
Including 3 servings of skim milk and 10 servings of fruits and vegetables a day
Substituting all table salt use throughout the day with Mrs. Dash seasoning product
Including 3 servings of skim milk and 10 servings of fruits and vegetables a day plus restricting sodium to 2 g/day
A predictor of stroke risk
Slightly high blood pressure
A precursor for Syndrome X
A component of the metabolic syndrome
A system that combines biofeedback with hypnosis
An oriental plant that suppresses colon and breast tumor growth
A Hindu system for enhancing the body’s ability to prevent illness and to heal itself
A variation of standard acupuncture technique that applies electromagnetic impulses to the needles
glycated corneal membranes.
Marinating before cooking
Wrapping the food in foil when cooking
People with chronic kidney disease are less likely to be salt-sensitive
Lowering sodium intakes reduces blood pressure only in certain ethnic groups
People over 30 years of age with hypertension are most likely to be salt-sensitive
Weight loss is often as effective as sodium restriction in lowering blood pressure
They are detoxified by the liver
They act as initiators for breast cancer
They act as promoters for prostate cancer
They are subjected to enterohepatic circulation
110 over 50
120 over 70
130 over 80
140 over 90
Low HDL level
Antihypertensive drugs work by lowering blood volume
The most frequently prescribed drug therapies are DASH inhibitors
Most people with hypertension need only one medicine to reduce blood pressure
Major side effects of antihypertensive drugs are depletion of body sodium and phosphorus
What medications to take
How to improve his atherogenic diet
How to slow down his aging process
How to map out his family tree, identifying all relatives with heart disease
Take at least 2 measurements at least 1 week apart
Send the patient to 2 different laboratories and average the results
Take a fasting and a non-fasting blood sample and average the results
Perform a fat tolerance test by having the patient drink a beverage containing 25 g of vegetable oil and obtain blood samples over the next 4 hours
type 2 diabetes.
high blood pressure.
Increased resistance to infections
Increased loss of water via the urine
a de-plaquing event.
Begin drug treatment
Consume a high-protein diet
Consume large amounts of fish and fish oils
Achieve and maintain appropriate body weight
impaired glucose tolerant.
cm of silver.
cm of depth.
mm of plaque.
mm of mercury.
Inositol and biotin
Certain saturated fats
Protein from animal sources
P-reactive protein (PRP)
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A
It works synergistically with reduction of sodium intake
It was originally designed as therapy for atherosclerosis
It is effective due to the high intakes of iron and vitamin B12
It includes an exercise component and a limitation on trans-fat intake